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韩国2分彩开奖

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韩国2分彩开奖

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4. We fully implemented the innovation-driven development strategy and continued to unlock new enthusiasm for innovation and business startups.

(四)全面实施创新驱动发展战略,创新创业活力持续释放。
We bolstered the role of innovation as the primary driver of development. Substantive breakthroughs were made in reforming the management system for science and technology, and efficiency was greatly enhanced in the national innovation system. High-tech industries and strategic emerging industries recorded rapid growth, the Internet Plus action plan was further implemented, and much progress was made toward fostering new growth drivers. Innovation and business startups have been elevated to yet higher levels, and new strides have been made in building China into a country of innovators.
强化创新第一动力作用,科技体制改革取得实质性突破,国家创新体系效能大幅提升,高技术产业和战略性新兴产业实现较快发展,“互联网+”行动深入推进,新动能培育取得积极进展,创新创业水平进一步提高,创新型国家建设迈出新步伐。
1) Our scientific and technological strength and innovation capacity continued to increase.
一是科技实力和创新能力不断提升。
China's spending on R&D reached 2.18% of GDP, and the contribution of scientific and technological advances to economic growth hit 58.5%. Basic research was further strengthened with a number of firsts being achieved: Chinese scientists demonstrated a toffoli gate in a semiconductor three-qubit system, found evidence for Majorana bound states in an iron-based superconductor, and created a single-chromosome eukaryote. We also saw a constant stream of major scientific and technological advances throughout the year: The Chang'e-4 lunar probe successfully landed on the far side of the moon; China's second homemade aircraft carrier took to the seas for its trial voyage; our homemade large amphibious aircraft completed its first overwater flight; the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System began providing services to the world; and China's 5G system equipment has reached the pre-commercial level.
全国研究与试验发展经费投入强度达到2.18%,科技进步贡献率预计提高到58.5%。基础研究进一步加强,首次在半导体量子点体系中实现三量子比特逻辑门,首次发现铁基超导体中的马约拉纳束缚态,首次人工创建单条染色体真核细胞。一批重大科技成果涌现,嫦娥四号探测器成功着陆月球背面,第二艘航母出海试航,国产大型水陆两栖飞机水上首飞,北斗导航系统面向全球开启服务,5G技术系统设备达到预商用水平。
We ensured faster and better-quality infrastructure construction in major science and technology, civil-space, information, and other fields, and continued improving the management mechanisms and assessment and incentive systems for scientific research. Pilot reforms for comprehensive innovation have made further progress – 123 out of 169 preliminary trials were completed and a second batch of 23 reform measures are currently being replicated and applied on a broader scale. Efforts to see Beijing and Shanghai become global science and technology innovation centers picked up pace, plans on building Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area into an international center for science and technology innovation were issued for implementation, and construction on the three comprehensive national science centers in Beijing's Huairou, Shanghai's Zhangjiang, and Anhui's Hefei advanced smoothly. The Implementation Plan for the Innovation-Driven Development Strategy of Hainan Province was released.
重大科技、民用空间、信息等领域基础设施建设提质提速,科研管理机制和评价激励制度不断完善。全面创新改革试验169项先行先试改革举措已完成123项,第二批共23项改革举措正在复制推广。北京、上海全球影响力科技创新中心建设加速推进,粤港澳大湾区国际科技创新中心建设方案印发实施,北京怀柔、上海张江、安徽合肥3个综合性国家科学中心建设进展顺利,海南省创新驱动发展战略实施方案出台实施。
Our state-level new areas, development zones, 20 national innovation demonstration zones, and 168 national new- and high-tech development zones played a stronger role in leading development, and good progress was made in the construction of national technological innovation centers for high-speed trains and NEVs. We unveiled the Guidelines on Building National Industrial Innovation Centers, and stepped up the building of the three national industrial innovation centers for advanced computing, advanced memory technology, and bio-breeding. We continued to enhance the role of enterprises as the principal entities in technological innovation, and certified a further 111 state-level enterprise technology centers.
国家级新区、开发区和20个国家自主创新示范区、168个国家高新区的引领作用增强,高速列车、新能源汽车等国家技术创新中心建设深入推进。国家产业创新中心工作指引出台实施,先进计算、先进存储、生物育种等3个国家产业创新中心加快建设。企业技术创新主体地位不断提高,新认定111家国家企业技术中心。
2) Business startups and innovation initiatives were intensified.
二是大众创业万众创新纵深推进。
The Guidelines on Promoting High-Quality Development of Innovation and Business Startups and Upgrading the National Business Startups and Innovation Initiative was promulgated. We continued to carry out the Three-Year Action Plan for Developing Business Startups and Innovation Platforms in Manufacturing, and confirmed 150 demonstration projects to pilot these platforms. Over 6,500 maker spaces have served 400,000 entrepreneurial teams, and helped generate over 1.4 million jobs; 1,824 rural maker spaces have filled 49,000 places on training courses and incubated 23,000 enterprises. We encouraged more robust development of business startups and innovation demonstration centers and similar demonstration hubs for small and micro businesses, and set up a sound national information service portal for related policies. We successfully held the 2018 National Entrepreneurship and Innovation Week and the Innovating China Tour. The National Venture Capital Guide Fund for Emerging Industries operated effectively, helpingmore than 1,200 new enterprises receive investment. The number of newly registered businesses in 2018 grew by 10.3%, with an average of 18,400 new businesses daily.
推动创新创业高质量发展打造“双创”升级版的意见出台实施,制造业“双创”平台培育三年行动计划深入推进,确定150个制造业“双创”平台试点示范项目。6500多家众创空间服务创业团队40万家,创业就业人数超过140万人。1824家星创天地培训农村创业人才4.9万人次,孵化企业2.3万家。加强“双创”示范基地建设和小微企业创业创新示范基地建设,建立完善国家创新创业政策信息服务网,成功举办2018年全国“双创”活动周和“创响中国”系列活动。国家新兴产业创业投资引导基金有效运转,新投资企业超过1200家。全年新登记注册企业增长10.3%,平均每天新设1.84万户。
3) Emerging industries enjoyed vigorous development.
三是新兴产业蓬勃发展。
The National Development Plan for Strategic Emerging Industries during the 13th Five-Year Plan Period was fully implemented. We promoted the development of strategic industry clusters, and moved faster to advance major projects on the "Internet Plus" model, next-generation information infrastructure, innovation-driven AI development, bio-tech industry, and civil-space infrastructure. The value-added of large high-tech manufacturing enterprises grew 11.7%, much higher than that of large industrial enterprises as a whole. The E-Commerce Law was promulgated, and a number of policies were issued over the course of the year to guide and regulate the development of new forms of business, such as the digital economy and the sharing economy. Accommodative and prudential regulation over new industries and new forms of business was further improved, allowing for the emergence of a stream of new hot innovations such as smart retail and capacity sharing. The online retail sales of goods grew by 25.4%, accounting for 18.4% of total retail sales of consumer goods, an increase of 3.4 percentage points from the previous year. We accelerated the building of eight national comprehensive experimental zones for big data in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Guizhou, and other areas.
全面落实“十三五”国家战略性新兴产业发展规划,推动战略性产业集群发展,“互联网+”、新一代信息基础设施、人工智能创新发展、生物产业倍增、民用空间基础设施等重大工程加速推进。规模以上高技术制造业增加值增长11.7%,快于全部规模以上工业增速。电子商务法正式公布,引导和规范数字经济、共享经济等新业态健康发展的政策文件陆续出台,对新业态新模式的包容审慎监管进一步完善,智能零售、产能共享等新热点持续涌现,全年实物商品网上零售额增长25.4%,占社会消费品零售总额比例达18.4%,比上年提高3.4个百分点。京津冀、贵州等8个国家大数据综合试验区加快建设。
4) The military-civilian integration strategy was implemented to good effect.
四是军民融合发展战略扎实推进。
Construction began on demonstration zones to promote innovation in military-civilian integration (MCI). Key special MCI projects on science and technology and the platform for military-civilian collaborative innovation in science and technology were launched. Smooth progress was made in major MCI demonstration projects, and strong steps were taken to develop the national MCI information platform. The national MCI industrial investment fund for defense-related science, technology, and industry was put into operation, along with the national-level MCI industrial investment fund. We also broadened investment and financing channels for military-civilian integration, by offering support for qualified MCI enterprises to issue corporate bonds. The third China Dual-Use Technology and Application Contest and the fourth Exhibition of MCI High-Tech Equipment Outcomes were successfully held.
国家军民融合创新示范区启动建设。科技军民融合重点专项与军民科技协同创新平台启动,军民融合重大示范项目建设进展顺利。国家军民融合信息化平台建设有力推进。国家国防科技工业军民融合产业投资基金、国家级军民融合发展产业投资基金启动运行。支持符合条件的军民融合企业发行企业债券,拓宽军民融合投融资渠道。第三届中国军民两用技术创新应用大赛和第四届军民融合高技术装备成果展成功举办。
5. We pursued deeper reform and greater opening-up and unlocked more drivers of economic and social development.
(五)深化改革扩大开放,经济社会发展动力进一步激发。
Reform of the State Council's institutions progressed as per the arrangements in the Plan on Deepening Reform of Party and State Institutions. A vast array of activities were held to celebrate the 40th anniversary of China's reform and opening-up, and a host of major measures to promote reform and opening-up were implemented.
按照深化党和国家机构改革方案,国务院机构改革有序推进。深入开展纪念改革开放40周年系列庆祝活动,推动一系列重大改革开放举措落地。
1) The business environment consistently improved.
一是营商环境持续优化。
Reforms to streamline administration, delegate powers, improve regulation, and upgrade services continued apace. Fully implementing the Negative List for Market Access, we issued the 2018 version, and took steps to ensure industries, sectors, and commercial activities not on the list could be fairly accessed by all types of market entities in accordance with law. We also abolished a number of items subject to administrative approval including those for automobile investment projects. The time taken to set up a business has been dramatically shortened to within 8.5 working days in cities at and above sub-provincial level and provincial capitals.
“放管服”改革深入推进。全面实施全国统一的市场准入负面清单制度,市场准入负面清单(2018年版)发布,清单以外的行业、领域、业务等各类市场主体皆可依法平等进入。取消汽车投资项目核准等一批行政许可事项,大幅压缩企业开办时间,副省级以上城市和省会城市企业开办时间压缩至8.5个工作日以内。
The reform separating out the business license from certificates required for starting a business was rolled out nationwide, and the national reform to merge 24 types of certification into one certificate was fully implemented. Reform of the industrial production licensing system picked up speed, and the number of product categories has been cut from 38 to 24. Trial reforms on the approval system for construction projects were started in Beijing and 14 other cities, as well as in Zhejiang Province. In the World Bank's Ease of Doing Business ranking (2019), China jumped from 78th to 46th place. We also piloted a business environment evaluation suited to China's conditions in 22 cities, marking the first step toward establishing China's own business environment evaluation system.
“证照分离”改革在全国推开,全面实施全国统一“二十四证合一”改革。工业产品生产许可证制度改革加快推进,产品种类由38类降至24类。在北京等15个城市和浙江省开展工程建设项目审批制度改革试点。世界银行公布的我国营商环境全球排名由2017年第78位大幅跃升至第46位。在22个城市开展中国营商环境试评价,中国营商环境评价体系初步构建。
Progress was made in promoting the oversight model using randomly selected inspectors to inspect randomly selected entities and requiring the prompt release of results, and full coverage of daily oversight in market regulation was basically realized. We continued building the social credit system. We introduced targeted measures in 19 key sectors against acts in bad faith, including telecom fraud, tax evasion, and tax fraud. The mechanisms of joint incentives for acts of good faith and joint punishment for acts of bad faith produced initial results.
深入推进“双随机、一公开”监管,基本实现市场监管领域日常监管全覆盖。社会信用体系建设持续推进,电信诈骗、偷逃骗税等19个重点领域失信问题专项治理深入开展,守信联合激励和失信联合惩戒机制初显成效。
We launched reforms to see that people need only log in to one website or visit one place and make one trip to access a government service. We formulated lists of responsibilities on data sharing for departments under the State Council, and basically established a national unified system of platforms for sharing and exchanging data. This system has so far facilitated data exchanges of 36 billion in number. We worked hard to provide more convenient approval services, and made solid progress in the "less certificates, more convenience" initiative and the campaign to free up 100 bottlenecks preventing people from accessing government services.
政务服务“一网一门一次”改革启动实施,建立国务院部门数据共享责任清单,基本建成全国一体化的数据共享交换平台体系,数据共享交换量达360亿条次。深入推进审批服务便民化,“减证便民”行动和“群众办事百项堵点疏解行动”扎实开展。
2) Reform of state capital and SOEs picked up pace.
二是国资国企改革加快推进。
The reform to introduce mixed ownership to SOEs moved forward in an active and steady manner. We issued the policies for deepening pilot reforms on mixed ownership, and carried out pilot mixed-ownership reforms sequentially in 50 SOEs in three groups, yielding important results. The Guidelines on Reforming the Salary-Setting Mechanism for SOEs and the Guidelines on Promoting Pilot Reforms in State Capital Investment and Management Companies were published. A system anchored by the Guidelines on Deepening Reform of SOEs as well as other supplementary policies was put in place. The Guidelines on Strengthening Constraints on SOEs' Debt-to-Asset Ratios were promulgated, marking the initial step in setting up a constraint mechanism for SOEs' debt-to-asset ratios. The modern SOE system with Chinese characteristics was further improved, and faster progress was made in establishing a corporate governance structure with effective checks and balances and flexible and efficient market-based operating mechanisms.
国有企业混合所有制改革积极稳步开展,深化混合所有制改革试点有关政策出台实施,三批50家混合所有制改革试点梯次推进并取得重要阶段性成效。改革国有企业工资决定机制的意见、推进国有资本投资、运营公司改革试点的实施意见出台,深化国企改革“1+N”政策体系搭建完成。加强国有企业资产负债约束的指导意见印发实施,国有企业资产负债约束机制初步建立。中国特色现代国有企业制度进一步完善,有效制衡的法人治理结构和灵活高效的市场化经营机制加快建立。
3) The private sector received stronger support.
三是支持民营经济发展力度加大。
We strengthened the protection of property rights and intellectual property rights (IPR). We set up a robust mechanism to ensure coordinated property rights protection, conducted a review of all regulations and normative documents relating to property rights protection, and carried out extensive campaigns to address failures within government institutions to act in good faith in this area. The Plan for the Internet Plus IPR Protection was unveiled. In line with our efforts to promote entrepreneurship, we repealed the Provisional Regulations for Private Enterprises. We worked to improve the transmission mechanism of monetary policy, and encouraged financial institutions to provide more credit to the real economy and to manufacturing firms, private enterprises, and small and micro businesses in particular. We set up instruments to support private enterprises in debt financing and help them find market-based solutions to financing problems.
加强产权和知识产权保护,建立健全产权保护协调机制,全面清理涉及产权保护的规章规范性文件,深入开展政府机构失信问题专项治理行动。“互联网+”知识产权保护工作方案出台实施。大力弘扬企业家精神,私营企业暂行条例废止。着力疏通货币政策传导机制,鼓励金融机构扩大对实体经济特别是制造业企业、民营企业、小微企业的信贷投放。设立民营企业债券融资支持工具,以市场化方式帮助企业缓解融资难问题。
4) The reform of the fiscal, tax, and financial systems registered steady progress.
四是财税金融改革稳步推进。
We continued reforms to divide fiscal powers and expenditure responsibilities between central and local governments on a sector by sector basis, and made consistent improvements to performance-based budgetary management. In the area of tax, further progress was made in VAT reform. We revised the Law on Individual Income Tax and its implementation regulations, raised the income tax threshold, introduced six special deductible items, and improved the structure of tax rates. The environmental protection tax came into force.
中央与地方财政事权和支出责任划分改革分领域推进,预算绩效管理制度不断完善。增值税改革进一步深化。修改个人所得税法及其实施条例,提高基本减除费用标准,设立6项专项附加扣除,税率结构进一步调整优化。环境保护税顺利开征。
We published policies on improving regulation of systemically important financial institutions, on strengthening oversight over nonfinancial firms' investment in financial institutions, and on improving the management of state-owned financial capital. The orderly development of private banks was promoted, with approval being granted for the establishment of 17 private banks.
完善系统重要性金融机构监管、加强非金融企业投资金融机构监管、完善国有金融资本管理等政策文件出台实施。有序推动民营银行发展,17家民营银行获批开业。
5) The Belt and Road Initiative made new advances.
五是共建“一带一路”取得新进展。
A symposium was held to mark the fifth anniversary of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). During the symposium the BRI's future trajectory was outlined with a view to ensuring it continues building momentum and producing concrete outcomes. Focusing on key areas and key countries, we worked to build on the collective desire for cooperation and promoted the coordination of development plans. To date, a total of 171 inter-governmental cooperation documents have been signed with over 150 countries and international organizations.
推进“一带一路”建设工作5周年座谈会召开,为推动“一带一路”建设走深走实明确了方向。围绕重点方向重点国别,巩固共建意愿、推动规划对接,已累计同150多个国家和国际组织签署171份政府间合作文件。
We steadily increased international industrial-capacity cooperation. The positive effect of industrial concentration in overseas economic and trade cooperation zones was much more noticeable, and third-market cooperation documents were signed with over ten countries, including France, Japan, and Singapore. There was substantial progress in key BRI projects like the China-Laos and China-Thailand rail lines and the China-UAE Industrial Park. Construction is fully underway on the Jakarta-Bandung high-speed line and making smooth progress on key port projects like Gwadar in Pakistan. We made important improvements to the quality and efficiency of the China-Europe freight train services. The services have so far registered over 13,000 trips, and have seen a 20-percentage-point increase in the number of return journeys to China. Marked progress was made in aviation connectivity among BRI countries, with the opening of 106 new air routes.
国际产能合作稳步推进,境外经贸合作区产业集聚效应增强,与法国、日本、新加坡等10多个国家签署第三方市场合作文件,中老、中泰铁路和中阿(联酋)“一带一路”产能合作园区等重点项目取得实质性进展,雅万高铁全面开工,瓜达尔港等重点港口项目进展顺利,中欧班列提质增效工作取得重要进展,累计开行超过1.3万列,回程率提高近20个百分点。“一带一路”沿线国家航空互联互通水平显著提高,新开航线106条。
The BRI International Science Organizations Alliance was established to promote collaboration on building technology transfer platforms between China and ASEAN, Arab states, and countries in south Asia, central Asia, and central and eastern Europe, and to co-establish science and technology parks with the Philippines, Indonesia, and six other countries. We successfully hosted the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, which produced many positive outcomes. Work on the Digital Silk Road progressed steadily with the signing of cooperation MOUs with 16 countries, and faster moves were made to promote Silk Road E-Commerce across the globe with the signing of cooperation agreements with 17 countries.
“一带一路”国际科学组织联盟成立,推动与东盟、南亚、阿拉伯国家、中亚、中东欧5个区域共建技术转移平台,推动与菲律宾、印尼等8个国家共建科技园区。中非合作论坛北京峰会取得圆满成功和丰硕成果。数字丝绸之路建设稳步推进,已与16个国家签署合作谅解备忘录,“丝路电商”全球布局步伐加快,与17个国家签署合作协议。
6) China made solid progress in developing as a trader of quality.
六是贸易强国建设扎实推进。
We successfully hosted the first China International Import Expo, an event which has shown to the world China's determination to continue opening its market and promote economic globalization. We stepped up negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, signed an upgraded free trade agreement (FTA) with Singapore, and completed FTA negotiations with Mauritius. With this, China has further strengthened its bilateral and multilateral economic and trade cooperation, and signed a total of 17 FTAs with 25 countries and regions.
首届中国国际进口博览会成功举办,向全世界宣示了我国主动开放市场、推动经济全球化的决心。区域全面经济伙伴关系协定谈判加速推进,与新加坡签署自贸协定升级版,与毛里求斯完成自贸协定谈判,累计已与25个国家和地区达成17个自贸协定,多双边经贸合作进一步深化。
We adopted 53 measures to deepen reform and promote innovation in pilot free trade zones, and applied 30 practices developed from trial reforms in pilot free trade zones across the country. We began work on building China (Hainan) Pilot Free Trade Zone, and carried out exploratory work on setting up free trade ports with Chinese features. We built more integrated experimental zones for cross-border e-commerce, improved retail import supervision and taxation policies on cross-border e-commerce, and expanded the scope of trials on market procurement trade. These steps have helped support the vigorous development of new forms and models of trade such as cross-border e-commerce and market procurement trade. We lowered China's overall tariff level from 9.8% to 7.5% and worked to balance China's foreign trade by actively expanding imports. The diversity of China's market grew continuously. The total value of imported and exported goods for the year stood at 30.51 trillion yuan, an increase of 9.7%.
出台53项措施支持自贸试验区深化改革创新,在全国范围内复制推广30项自贸试验区改革试点经验。海南全岛自贸试验区启动建设,探索建设中国特色自由贸易港。新设一批跨境电子商务综合试验区,完善跨境电商零售进口监管和税收政策,扩大市场采购贸易试点范围,跨境电子商务、市场采购贸易等新业态新模式蓬勃发展。关税总水平由9.8%下调至7.5%,积极扩大进口促进对外贸易平衡发展。多元化市场不断拓展,全年货物贸易进出口总额达30.51万亿元,增长9.7%。
7) The foreign investment environment was continuously improved.
七是利用外资环境不断优化。
Restrictions on market access were relaxed across the board. Two editions of the 2018 negative list for foreign investment were published, one for the whole country and the other for pilot free trade zones. The number of special administrative measures applying in each case has been reduced to 48 and 45 respectively. Steady progress was made in opening up the financial sector. We instituted a nationwide policy of allowing foreign-invested enterprises to complete business filing procedures and business registration in one go. We took active steps to promote equal treatment of domestic and foreign enterprises in terms of industrial policy, science and technology policy, government procurement, license applications, and standards-setting. Reform and innovation-driven development in development zones were stepped up, and the business environment for foreign investors continued to improve. China attracted around US$ 135 billion in foreign direct investment over the year, an increase of 3%.
全面放宽市场准入,2018年版全国和自贸试验区两个外资准入负面清单发布,特别管理措施分别压减至48条、45条,金融领域对外开放稳步推进。在全国推行外资企业设立商务备案与工商登记“一口办理”,积极推进在产业政策、科技政策、政府采购、资质许可、标准制定等方面平等对待内外资企业,开发区改革和创新发展不断深化,外商投资环境持续优化。全年外商直接投资达1350亿美元,增长3%。
8) Development of outward investment was steady and orderly.
八是对外投资平稳有序发展。
The Management Provisions for Outward Investment by Enterprises and the Interim Measures for Reporting on the Registration (Approval) of Outward Investment were put into force. We enhanced unified supervision over outward investment at all stages and further improved the sectorial composition of outward investments, with the bulk flowing into leasing, business services, and manufacturing. To enhance the awareness of enterprises about compliance, we published the Guide on Compliance Management for Enterprises' Overseas Operations. We provided guidance to see the sound development of outward investment and financing funds, thus expanding the channels through which enterprises can seek financing for their "go-global" efforts. Non-financial outward direct investment reached US$ 120.5 billion in 2018.
企业境外投资管理办法、对外投资备案(核准)报告暂行办法正式施行,全口径、全过程管理不断完善,对外投资行业结构进一步优化,主要流向租赁和商务服务业、制造业等。发布企业境外经营合规管理指引,企业合规意识有所增强。引导对外投融资基金健康发展,企业“走出去”融资渠道进一步拓宽。全年非金融类境外直接投资达到1205亿美元。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
guidance ['gaidəns]

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n. 引导,指导

 
initial [i'niʃəl]

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n. (词)首字母
adj. 开始的,最初的,

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assessment [ə'sesmənt]

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n. 估价,评估

 
effectively [i'fektivli]

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adv. 事实上,有效地

 
compliance [kəm'plaiəns]

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n. 顺从,遵从,灵活

 
enthusiasm [in'θju:ziæzəm]

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n. 热情,热心;热衷的事物

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scope [skəup]

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n. 能力,范围,眼界,机会,余地
vt. 仔

 
monetary ['mʌnə.teri]

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adj. 货币的,金融的

 
rural ['ru:rəl]

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adj. 农村的

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interim ['intərim]

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adj. 中间的,暂时的,临时的
n. 中间时

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